MATERNAL AND FETAL CARE

Jump to Diagnosis – Diagnosis. Main article: Fertility testing. Women over the age of 35 should see their physician or WHNP after six months as fertility. If necessary , they refer patients to a fertility clinic or local hospital for more specialized tests. The results of these tests help determine the best fertility treatment.

Recurrent miscarriage , habitual abortion, or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is the occurrence of three or more consecutive pregnancies that end in miscarriage of the fetus before viability (for example 24 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom). About 1% of couples trying to have children are affected by recurrent miscarriage.

To determine the possible association between single umbilical artery (SUA) in the second trimester and the incidence of fetal aneuploidy (T21 ,13&18) and other malformations. To report the incidence of associated perinatal mortality.

The menopause can cause various symptoms such as hot flushes and changes to your vagina and genital skin. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may ease symptoms. However , if you take HRT you have a very small increased risk of developing serious diseases such as breast cancer. If you are considering taking HRT , you should discuss the risks and benefits fully with your doctor.

The menopause can cause various symptoms such as hot flushes and changes to your vagina and genital skin. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may ease symptoms. However , if you take HRT you have a very small increased risk of developing serious diseases such as breast cancer. If you are considering taking HRT , you should discuss the risks and benefits fully with your doctor.

Cervical cancer starts in cells lining the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb). It is sometimes called the uterine cervix. The body of the uterus (the upper part) is where a fetus grows. The cervix connects the body of the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). The part of the cervix closest to the body of the uterus is called the endocervix. The part next to the vagina is the exocervix (or ectocervix). The 2 main types of cells covering the cervix are squamous cells (on the exocervix) and glandular cells (on the endocervix). The place these cell types meet is called the transformation zone. The exact location of the transformation zone changes as you age and with childbirth. Most cervical cancers start in the cells in the transformation zone.

Medical checkups and screening tests help keep you and your baby healthy during pregnancy. This is called prenatal care. It also involves education and counseling about how to handle different aspects of your pregnancy. During your visits , your doctor may discuss many issues , such as healthy eating and physical activity , screening tests you might need , and what to expect during labor and delivery.

In order to maintain good reproductive and sexual health , females should visit a gynecologist- a doctor who specializes in females reproductive health- for an exam about once per year. Generally , females should begin seeing a gynecologist at the age of 21 , but begin earlier if they become sexually active. After their first visit , females ages 21 to 29 should visit their gynecologist annually to get a Pap smear.

A complete examination of a woman is internal pelvic structures can provide important information regarding infertility and common gynecologic disorders. Frequently , problems that cannot be discovered by an external physical examination can be discovered by laparoscopy and hysteroscopy , two procedures that provide a direct look at the pelvic organs. These procedures may be recommended as part of your infertility care , depending on your particular situation. Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy can be used for both diagnostic (looking only) and operative (looking and treating) purposes.